Volltext: Zeitschrift für Ethnologie der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Völkerkunde und der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte, 115.1990

War (Peace) related norms and values 
Marie-Luise Heimann-Koenen 
Institut für Völkerkunde, Universität zu Köln, Albertus-Magnus-Platz 5, D—5000 Kóln 41, Deutschland 
Abstract. My field of investigation is hypotheses concerning norms and values that influence conflict man- 
agement with respect to the frequency and intensity of violence that can be tested cross-culturally. Among 
variables I discuss here are * Acceptability of violence", *Prestige for being a warrior”, and “Norms for tak- 
ing revenge". 
Within the research project my field of investigation is norms and values that influence 
conflict management with respect to the frequency and intensity of violence. 
Hypotheses will be formulated and later tested, using the already selected sample. 
The quality of the data at hand imposes certain restrictions on the construction of the 
Cross-cultural studies of conflict management form an important basis for the se- 
lection of hypotheses and variables that can be tested cross-culturally. The most ex- 
haustive list of variables describing norms and values are contained in a study by Ross 
I have tested these and several other variables available (e. g. from Nammour 1975) 
for the SCCS. Those with high effects I have selected for further refinement. In addi- 
tion to using the SCCS-codes and for an illustration of how norms and values effect 
Conflict management, I turned to ethnographic studies with a special focus on conflict 
Management. A good example is Boehm’s ‘Blood Revenge’ (1984), describing and ana- 
lyzing the phenomenon, based on field research in Montenegro. The analysis of these 
Case studies yielded two more variables (7, 8). 
I will now discuss the variables selected (cf. Fig. 1.). Variables 1 to 5 are based on 
Ross 1983. The first three variables measure a general attitude towards the use of 
Physical force. They form the ‘cognitive framework’ for the way conflicts are managed 
and refer to the norms and attitudes of members of an ethnic group towards using viol- 
nce as a means to solve conflicts. The first hypothesis can be formulated: 
The more the use of physical force is valued by an ethnic group, the higher the 
frequency of violent conflict management. The opposite should apply as well: The 
More the use of physical force is rejected by an ethnic group, the lower the frequency 
Of violent conflict management. 
This hypothesis might appear selfevident. However there are cultures which do 
not value violence and still have a high frequency of violent conflict management. An 
*xample of such a culture are the Tausug (Philippines). Its ethnographer, Kiefer, 
Zeitschrift für Ethnologie 115 (1990) 63-66 © 1992 Dietrich Reimer Verlag 


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